The Nobel Prize in economics was given to lvin E. Roth of Harvard University and Lloyd Shapley of UCLA for their work in market design and matching theory. The award was announced by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on Monday.

According to interpretation of the academy the work of American scientists, Roth and Shapley, focuses on finding the most efficient way to match parties in a transaction, which can be applied and considered on different issues whether it is students to schools or organ donors to recipients, the theory is supposed to work efficiently. In their conjoin work Shapley used game theory with the purpose to study matching models, when Roth built on them to make some real-world changes markets which exist. Those markets included school choice and organ transplants where the theory has been already used.

If to be more specific, some elements of the work have been already built into the software that guides such an important issue as kidney donations in the United States; as well as some elements have been already applied in some school choice models in New York, Boston, New Orleans and other U.S. cities. All that facts were mentioned by Roth during the interview on Monday. Roth also told to reporters that he had been awakened by an early morning call and informed about their win. According the words of the laureate he was not expecting the prize at all but he was honored so much to share it with Shapley. He also added joking, “I’m sure when I go to the class this morning my students will pay more attention.”

The prize in Economics is the sixth and final of the annual awards that usually spotlight the top scholars and peacemakers of the World. But the economics award didn’t used to be among the original prizes created in 1895 by Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel. Then just works in physics, medicine, chemistry, literature and peace were honored. The economics category was added by the Swedish central bank in memory of the industrialist. Thus economics awards has been given just since 1969.

This year the monetary award that accompanies the Nobel Prize was lowered by the foundation. The amount is 20% less. If last year it was 10 million Swedish kronor ($1.5 million), this year 8 million kronor ($1.2 million) accompanies the Prize which is because of the turbulence that hit the number of financial markets.

Before the economics selection, the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the European Union which really surprised European society. It even made some Italian and Greek demonstrators walk out on the streets to protest austerity measures as well as the decision of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Despite the financial crisis that threatens to break the EU apart, the 27-nation union got the award for its practice and efforts in promoting democracy and reconciliation following World War II, even as it grapples with a financial crisis that threatens to break the EU apart.

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